Command Line Interface (CLI)¶
The Command Line Interface (CLI) provides a way to interact with Chameleon resources using shell and scripting tools. Chameleon uses the OpenStack Client to provide CLI functionality. This documentation section provides an overview on how to install the client and configure your shell environment to access Chameleon features.
Some of the Chameleon features are only accessable via the CLI, such as the Gnocchi metrics and the advanced networking features.
Chameleon Cloud is primarily designed to support Unix-like environments. Threfore, it is highly recommended using CLI in a Unix-like system. For Windows 10 users, you may want to enable Windows Subsystem for Linux to get better experience with the Chameleon CLI.
Installing the CLI¶
- Python - Check if you have Python installed.
- pip - If you’re using Python 3.4 (or greater), then pip comes installed with Python by default.
OpenStack Client Installation¶
Install the CLI by typing
pip install python-openstackclientin the terminal.
Verify that it has installed correctly by typing
openstack. You will enter the Openstack Client in interactive mode and your prompt should change to
Exit the client by typing
There are some clients with new features or bugfixes not yet in the upstream release branches, notably the Blazar CLI client. If you want to make reservations via the CLI, you should install that here:
pip install git+https://github.com/chameleoncloud/blazar@chameleoncloud/train
When using the CLI, you have to provide some credentials so the system trusts that the operations are really being executed by your user account. There are two ways of doing this.
Setting a CLI password¶
You can set a CLI password via the Chameleon Authentication Portal. The password you associate with your account can not be used to log in to the GUI or Jupyter interfaces and can only be used to authenticate a command-line client.
The benefit of this method is that this password will work on any Chameleon site.
You should set a strong password for your CLI password, and it should not be a password you use elsewhere. Otherwise, your account risks being compromised by an attacker who has possibly obtained your password from another breached service. We highly recommend using a password manager e.g., BitWarden, LastPass <https://www.lastpass.com/password-manager>, or 1Password to assist.
Creating an application credential¶
You can also generate application credentials, which act as dedicated one-off passwords that are authorized with the same permissions as your user account, within a single project. If you work on multiple projects simultaneously, you will need to generate one application credential for each project.
To create an application credential, navigate to the “Identity” dashboard in the Graphical User Interface (GUI), and go to the “Application Credentials” panel. Create a new application credential and name it something meaningful (such as “CLI access for project CH-XXX”). You will also need to check the “unrestricted” checkbox in order to use the CLI to make leases in Blazar. If you do not need to make reservations via the CLI, you can leave the box unchecked, as it is the safer option.
Once the system generates the credential, you will be given the option to download an RC file that configures the CLI to use the application credential for authentication. You will only see the secret credentials once, so make sure to save the RC file or the secret somewhere, as if it’s lost, you will have to delete the credential and create a new one.
The OpenStack RC Script¶
You must use the OpenStack RC Scripts to configure the environment variables for accessing Chameleon features. You can downloaded the script from the Chameleon GUI at the gui-api-access.
If you use the Chameleon supported (CC) images, you’ll find an
file with a service token in the home directory for the
cc user. The file
will be auto-sourced when you login, so you can use the
openstack and the swift CLI
directly, as well as the
cc-snapshot and the
Download the RC file from the site you would like to interact with. The RC files are different for each site.
Select the project you wish to access via Project and Site Menu.
Download OpenStack RC Script using User Menu by clicking on Openstack RC File v3.
Run the following command in the terminal:
The command will not work for Windows users. Skip this step and the next step if you are using Windows system.
Enter your password when prompted.
For macOS/Linux users, your current terminal session has been configured to access your project. Now type
openstackin your terminal session.
For Windows users, you have to provide the environment variables in the OpenStack RC script as
openstackcommand parameters. Run the following command in your Windows prompt:
openstack --os-auth-url <OS_AUTH_URL> \ --os-project-id <OS_PROJECT_ID> \ --os-project-name <OS_PROJECT_NAME> \ --os-user-domain-name <OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME> \ --os-username <OS_USERNAME> \ --os-password <OS_PASSWORD> \ --os-region-name <OS_REGION_NAME> \ --os-interface <OS_INTERFACE> \ --os-identity-api-version <OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION>
Replace values of the parameters by reading from the OpenStack RC script.
Another way to configure the OpenStack client for Windows users is to add/edit environment variables manually via System Properties window. Then, click on Environment Variables… button and manually add/edit the environment variables in OpenStack RC Script to Environment Variable window.
For macOS/Linux users, every time when open a new terminal, you have to run the
sourcecommand to access the OpenStack client.
If you get authentication error, check if you input your password correctly.
project listat the
(openstack)prompt. You should see a list of the projects you belong to.
If you get permission error at this step, please check that:
- the terminal session has been configured correctly with the environment variables
- the OpenStack RC script you
- the OpenStack client version is the latest. To check the OpenStack
client version, use
openstack --versioncommand. Some older versions may cause errors.
If you get the
Missing valueerror when using a command, it is likely that your terminal session has not been configured correctly and completely with the environment variables. The error may be fixed by re-running the
sourcecommand over the OpenStack RC Script or using the command line switches.
Using the CLI¶
You can use the CLI in either Interactive Mode or Shell Mode. In either mode,
the OpenStack client has to be configured by using the OpenStack RC Script or
by providing the command line switches. For more information about the usage of
the OpenStack client, run
The Interactive Mode allows you to use the
openstack commands through an
interactive prompt. To start the Interactive Mode, type
openstack in the
configured terminal. Once entering the Interactive Mode, you will see a
(openstack) prompt. Type the command you would like to run at the prompt. To
find out the commands, type
Each CLI command can be used in your terminal exactly the same way that it
appears in the Interactive Mode, simply by preceding the command with
openstack. For example, the command
image list in the Interactive Mode
is equivalent to the command
openstack image list in the Shell Mode.