OpenStack is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platform that allows you to create and manage virtual environments. Chameleon provides an installation of OpenStack Rocky using the KVM virtualization technology at the KVM@TACC site. Since the KVM hypervisor is used on this cloud, any virtual machines you upload must be compatible with KVM.
This documentation provide basic information about how to use the OpenStack web interface and provides some information specific to using OpenStack KVM on Chameleon. The interface is similar to the bare metal sites CHI@TACC and CHI@UC. However, the resources that you are using are virtual, rather than being tied to physical nodes. Familiarity with some concepts, such as Key Pairs are also required for KVM.
Work with KVM using the GUI¶
After a successful log in, you will see the Overview page as shown below. This page provides a summary of your current and recent usage and provides links to various other pages. Most of the tasks you will perform are done via the menu on the lower left and will be described below. One thing to note is that on the left, your current project is displayed. If you have multiple Chameleon projects, you can change which of them is your current project. All of the information displayed and actions that you take apply to your current project. So in the screen shot below, the quota and usage apply to the current project you have selected and no information about your other projects is shown.
Managing Virtual Machine Instances¶
One of the main activities you’ll be performing in the GUI is management of virtual machines, or instances. Go to Project > Compute > Instances in the navigation sidebar. For instances that you have running, you can click on the name of the instance to get more information about it and to access the VNC interface to the console. The dropdown menu to the left of the instance lets you perform a variety of tasks such as suspending, terminating, or rebooting the instance.
To launch an Instance, click the Launch Instance button. This will open the Launch Instance dialog.
Follow these steps to configure Details tab:
Provide a name for this instance (to help you identify instances that you are running)
Choose a Flavor for the Instance. Flavors refer to the virtual machine’s assigned memory and and disk size. Different images and snapshots may require a larger Flavor. For example, the
CC-CentOS7image requires at least an
If you select different flavors from the Flavor dropdown, their characteristics are displayed on the right.
Select the amount of resources (Flavor) to allocate to the instance.
Select the Instance Boot Source of the instance, which is either an Image, a Snapshot (an image created from a running virtual machine), or a Volume (a persistent virtual disk that can be attached to a virtual machine). If you select Boot from image, the Image Name dropdown presents a list of virtual machine images that we have provided, that other Chameleon users have uploaded and made public, or images that you have uploaded for yourself. If you select Boot from snapshot, the Instance Snapshot dropdown presents a list of virtual machine images that you have created from your running virtual machines.
When you are finished with this step, go to the Access and Security Tab.
- Select an SSH keypair that will be inserted into your virtual machine. You will need to select a keypair here to be able to access an instance created from one of the public images Chameleon provides. These images are not configured with a default root password and you will not be able to log in to them without configuring an SSH key.
- If you have previously defined Security Groups, you may select them here. Alternatively, you can configure them later.
Set up network using Network tab.
- Select which network should be associated with the instance. Click the
+next to your project’s private network (PROJECT_NAME-net), not
Now you can launch your instance by clicking on the Launch button and the Instances page will show progress as it starts.
Associating a Floating IP Address¶
You may assign a Floating IP Address to your Instance by selecting Associate Floating IP in the dropdown menu next to your Instance on the Instances page.
Security Groups allow you to specify what inbound and outbound traffic is allowed or blocked to Instances. Unlike the CHI@TACC and CHI@UC bare metal sites, KVM@TACC observes Security Groups for Instances.
By default, all inbound traffic is blocked to KVM@TACC Instances, including SSH. You must apply a Security Group that allows TCP port 22 inbound to access your instance via SSH.
To create a Security Group, click Projects > Compute > Access and Security in the navigation side bar.
Click the +Create Security Group button to open the Create Security Group page.
Enter a Name for your Security Group, and optionally provide a Description. Then click the Create Security Group button. Now, you should see your Security Group listed on the Access and Security page.
Click the Manage Rules button in the Action column to open the Manage Security Group Rules page.
The default Security Group allows outbound IPv4 and IPv6 traffic for Any IP Protocol and Port Range. If no entry for Ingress, no inbound traffic will be allowed. You may add an additional rule by clicking on the +Add Rule to open the Add Rule dialog.
In this dialog, you can specify Custom TCP Rule (or Custom UDP Rule or Custom ICMP Rule), a Direction (Ingress for inbound traffic to your Instance or Egress for outbound traffic) and a Port. Alternatively, you can use a pre-defined rule in the Rule dropdown, such as SSH. when you are finished, click Add.
Adding a Security Group to an Instance¶
Once you have defined a Security Group, you may apply it to an Instance by clicking Project > Compute > Instances in the navigation sidebar and clicking the Edit Security Groups option in the Actions dropdown.
The Security Groups tab in the Edit Instance dialog will pop up.
You may click the + button next to the Security Group you wish to apply in the All Security Groups list on the left. Once you are finished, click Save to finish the process.
Migrating from KVM-2015¶
The previous iteration of the KVM cloud, KVM-2015, came online at the end of 2015 and runs the 2015.1 “Kilo” release of OpenStack. The KVM-2015 cloud will continue to be operational until 2020, at which point it will be taken offline. As of November 1, 2019, all user key pairs and project images and networks have been migrated automatically to the new KVM site. In most cases, you can migrate to the new KVM cloud simply by using the
kvm.tacc.chameleoncloud.org address instead of the old
openstack.tacc.chameleoncloud.org address in your browser. If you are using OpenStack clients, you can point them to a new authentication URL via your RC file (see the command line interface documentation for more info). You can continue to use the same login credentials as before.
Migrating data from instances or volumes from KVM-2015 to instances the new KVM is most easily accomplished using in-instance transfer methods such as rsync over ssh, sftp or similar techniques.
Rsync is a good choice because it can continue interrupted transfers and can do so securely over SSH. Some things to remember when using rsync include:
- Instance flavors in new KVM do not include an option with 160GB disk. In this case, it is best to create and attach a volume to provide persistent, large storage to your instances. DigitalOcean has a good guide for configuring the storage, once attached.
- Both VMs will need a floating IP assigned.
- Make sure that the security groups for instances on each of the KVM systems are set appropriately. When using rync over SSH, ingress and egress rules for port 22 will be needed.
- The VM that will execute the rsync command will need to have the SSH private key matching the public key used for the remote VM.
- Install rsync
- CentOSsudo yum install rsync
- Ubuntusudo apt-get install rsync
- Here is an example using a VM on the new KVM to copy data from a VM on KVM-2015:
rsync -v -e ssh cc@X.X.X.X:/home/cc/remote_directory/ /home/cc/local_directory/